Abdominoplasty (also known as a tummy tuck) is cosmetic surgery of the abdomen to remove wrinkles and tighten the skin over the stomach.


A collection of pus contained within a tissue cavity. Abscesses develop due to infections and reactions against foreign bodies. They are in fact a response of the body’s immune system as they try to wall off the infection from the rest of the body. Abscesses can occur at numerous sites in the body.

Acanthosis nigricans

A condition associated with insulin resistance, characterized by darkening of the skin and a velvety texture to affected areas. This is another cause of benign melanocytic lesions.


Acetylcholine is a chemical compound that acts as a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is particularly important in the stimulation of muscle tissue.


Achromycin is used for the treatment of infections caused some Gram negative micro-organisms.


Acne is a skin condition characterized by the presence of one or more of the following: blackheads, whiteheads, papules and pustules.

Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT)

A method for measuring the intrinsic and common pathways of coagulation, this test measures factors XII, XI, IX, and VIII and is sensitive to inhibitors such as heparin. Petechiae can result conditions which cause a prolonged aPPT.

Adrenocortical carcinoma

Adrenocortical carcinoma is the progress of malignant tumour in the adrenal gland cortex. It affects the hormone producing system in the kidney and thus have adverse consequences as it invades adjacent tissues and mestatisize to distant organs.

Adrenocorticotrophin hormone

A hormone, synthesized and stored in the anterior pituitary, which is released in large amounts during a stress response. This has been hypothesized to be strongly associated with increased numbers of moles.

Adverse drug reaction (ADR)

Adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is a term used to describe the unwanted, negative consequences of drug therapy.


An allergen is a substance that produces an allergic reaction in a patient. Common allergens include dust and pollen. Asthma is commonly triggered by allergens, which bronchodilators are used to treat.

Allergic reaction

A state of hypersensitivity induced by exposure to a substance (allergen) that results in harmful immunologic reactions in the body.


Allodynia is a condition where an individual reports a heightened experience of pain to stimuli that are usually not painful (e.g. a light touch).

Alternative Medicine

Alternative medicine is a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine. Alternative medicine is used in place of conventional medicine.


Alvesco contains a medicine called ciclesonide which belongs to a class of drugs known as corticosteroids. Alvesco is primarily used in the treatment of asthma.